Saturday, December 4, 2010

About G-20

What is the G-20
The Group of Twenty (G-20) Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors was established in 1999 to bring together systemically important industrialized and developing economies to discuss key issues in the global economy. The inaugural meeting of the G-20 took place in Berlin, on December 15-16, 1999, hosted by German and Canadian finance ministers.
The G-20 is the premier forum for our international economic development that promotes open and constructive discussion between industrial and emerging-market countries on key issues related to global economic stability. By contributing to the strengthening of the international financial architecture and providing opportunities for dialogue on national policies, international co-operation, and international financial institutions, the G-20 helps to support growth and development across the globe.
The G-20 was created as a response both to the financial crises of the late 1990s and to a growing recognition that key emerging-market countries were not adequately included in the core of global economic discussion and governance. Prior to the G-20 creation, similar groupings to promote dialogue and analysis had been established at the initiative of the G-7. The G-22 met at Washington D.C. in April and October 1998. Its aim was to involve non-G-7 countries in the resolution of global aspects of the financial crisis then affecting emerging-market countries. Two subsequent meetings comprising a larger group of participants (G-33) held in March and April 1999 discussed reforms of the global economy and the international financial system. The proposals made by the G-22 and the G-33 to reduce the world economy's susceptibility to crises showed the potential benefits of a regular international consultative forum embracing the emerging-market countries. Such a regular dialogue with a constant set of partners was institutionalized by the creation of the G-20 in 1999.
The G-20 is made up of the finance ministers and central bank governors of 19 countries:
Saudi Arabia
South Africa
Republic of Korea
United Kingdom
United States of America
The European Union, who is represented by the rotating Council presidency and the European Central Bank, is the 20th member of the G-20. To ensure global economic fora and institutions work together, the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the President of the World Bank, plus the chairs of the International Monetary and Financial Committee and Development Committee of the IMF and World Bank, also participate in G-20 meetings on an ex-officio basis. The G-20 thus brings together important industrial and emerging-market countries from all regions of the world. Together, member countries represent around 90 per cent of global gross national product, 80 per cent of world trade (including EU intra-trade) as well as two-thirds of the world's population. The G-20's economic weight and broad membership gives it a high degree of legitimacy and influence over the management of the global economy and financial system.
The G-20 has progressed a range of issues since 1999, including agreement about policies for growth, reducing abuse of the financial system, dealing with financial crises and combating terrorist financing. The G-20 also aims to foster the adoption of internationally recognized standards through the example set by its members in areas such as the transparency of fiscal policy and combating money laundering and the financing of terrorism. In 2004, G-20 countries committed to new higher standards of transparency and exchange of information on tax matters. This aims to combat abuses of the financial system and illicit activities including tax evasion. The G-20 has also aimed to develop a common view among members on issues related to further development of the global economic and financial system.
To tackle the financial and economic crisis that spread across the globe in 2008, the G-20 members were called upon to further strengthen international cooperation. Since then, the concerted and decisive actions of the G-20 helped the world deal effectively with the current financial and economic crisis. The G-20 has already delivered a number of significant and concrete outcomes. For examples, it committed to implement the unprecedented and most coordinated expansionary macroeconomic policies, including the fiscal expansion of US$5 trillion and the unconventional monetary policy instruments; significantly enhance the financial regulations, notably by the establishment of the Financial Stability Board(FSB); and substantially strengthen the International Financial Institutions(IFIs), including the expansion of resources and the improvement of precautionary lending facilities of the IFIs.
Reflecting on these achievements and recognizing that more needs to be done to ensure a strong, sustained and balanced global recovery, the G-20 Leaders at Pittsburgh Summit designated the G-20 as the premier forum for international economic cooperation.
Unlike international institutions such as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), IMF or World Bank, the G-20 (like the G-7) has no permanent staff of its own. The G-20 chair rotates between members, and is selected from a different regional grouping of countries each year. In 2010 the G-20 chair is the Republic of Korea, and in 2011 it will be France. The chair is part of a revolving three-member management Troika of past, present and future chairs. The incumbent chair establishes a temporary secretariat for the duration of its term, which coordinates the group's work and organizes its meetings. The role of the Troika is to ensure continuity in the G-20's work and management across host years.
Former G-20 Chairs
1999-2001 Canada
2002 India
2003 Mexico
2004 Germany
2005 China
2006 Australia
2007 South Africa
2008 Brazil
2009 United Kingdom
Meetings and activities
It is normal practice for the G-20 finance ministers and central bank governors to meet once a year. The last meeting of ministers and governors was held in St. Andrews, UK on 6-7 November 2009. The ministers' and governors' meeting is usually preceded by two deputies' meetings and extensive technical work. This technical work takes the form of workshops, reports and case studies on specific subjects, that aim to provide ministers and governors with contemporary analysis and insights, to better inform their consideration of policy challenges and options.

2010 G20 Events
Deputies Meeting, February 27-28, Korea. (Incheon Songdo)
Meeting of Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors, April 23, USA. (Washington, D.C)
Meeting of Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors, June 4-5, Korea. (Busan)
G20 Summit Meeting, June 26-27, Canada. (Toronto)
Deputies Meeting, September 4-5, Korea. (Gwangju)
Deputies Meeting, October 7, USA. (Washington, D.C)
Meeting of Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors, October 22-23, Korea. (Gyeongju)
G20 Summit Meeting, November 11-12, Korea (Seoul)
Interaction with other international organizations
The G-20 cooperates closely with various other major international organizations and fora, as the potential to develop common positions on complex issues among G-20 members can add political momentum to decision-making in other bodies. The participation of the President of the World Bank, the Managing Director of the IMF and the chairs of the International Monetary and Financial Committee and the Development Committee in the G-20 meetings ensures that the G-20 process is well integrated with the activities of the Bretton Woods Institutions. The G-20 also works with, and encourages, other international groups and organizations, such as the Financial Stability Board and the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, in progressing international and domestic economic policy reforms. In addition, experts from private-sector institutions and non-government organisations are invited to G-20 meetings on an ad hoc basis in order to exploit synergies in analyzing selected topics and avoid overlap.
External communication
The country currently chairing the G-20 posts details of the group's meetings and work program on a dedicated website. Although participation in the meetings is reserved for members, the public is informed about what was discussed and agreed immediately after the meeting of ministers and governors has ended. After each meeting of ministers and governors, the G-20 publishes a communiqué which records the agreements reached and measures outlined. Material on the forward work program is also made public.

Sep 13, 2010

How Famous Companies were Named???

How Famous Companies were Named???
The word was invented by Jonathan Swift and used in his book Gulliver's Travels. It represents a person who is repulsive in appearance and action and is barely human. Yahoo! founders Jerry Yang and David Filo selected the name because they considered themselves yahoos.


The Greek root "xer" means dry. The inventor, Chestor Carlson , named his product Xerox as it was dry copying, markedly different from the then prevailing wet copying.

Sun Microsystems
Founded by four Stanford University buddies, Sun is the acronym for Stanford University Network.

From the Latin word 'sonus' meaning sound, and 'sonny' a slang used by Americans to refer to a bright youngster.


"Systems, Applications, Products in Data Processing", formed by four ex-IBM employees who used to work in the 'Systems/Applications/Projects' group of IBM.

Red Hat
Company founder Marc Ewing was given the Cornell lacrosse team cap (with red and white stripes) while at college by his grandfather. He lost it and had to search for it desperately. The manual of the beta version of Red Hat Linux had an appeal to readers to return his Red Hat if found by anyone!

Larry Ellison and Bob Oats were working on a consulting project for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The code name for the project was called Oracle (the CIA saw this as the system to give answers to all questions or something such).

Founder Paul Galvin came up with this name when his company started manufacturing radios for cars. The popular radio company at the time was called Victrola.

Top 500 most valuable brands

In Indian brands, Tata is at 64th position, while Reliance is at 107. India’s largest public sector bank, The State Bank of India is ranked 186, while mobile giant Airtel is placed at 288th position. Software tycoon Wipro is at 379, while its competitor Infosys is at 423. India’s largest private sector bank, ICICI was ranked 439

  1. Walmart
  2. Google
  3. Coca-Cola
  4. IBM
  5. Microsoft
  6. GE
  7. Vodafone
  8. HSBC
  9. HP
  10. Toyota
  11. AT&T
  12. Santander
  13. Verizon
  15. Budweiser
  16. Tesco
  17. McDonald’s
  18. Walt Disney
  19. Apple
  20. Nokia
  21. The Home Depot
  22. Samsung
  23. China Mobile
  24. Orange
  25. Mitsubishi
  26. Shell
  27. Intel
  28. BMW
  29. AXA
  30. Pepsi
  31. L’Oréal
  32. Nike
  33. Target
  34. Siemens
  35. Citi
  36. BNP Paribas
  37. Goldman Sachs
  38. Mercedes-Benz
  39. Chase
  40. Christian Dior
  42. Bradesco
  43. UPS
  44. Barclays
  45. Honda
  46. GDF SUEZ
  47. Allianz
  48. Oracle
  49. American Express
  50. Ford
  51. Sony
  52. BP
  53. ICBC
  54. China Construction Bank
  55. Comcast
  56. JP Morgan
  57. Sberbank
  58. Société Générale
  59. CISCO
  60. Volkswagen
  61. Chevron
  62. Heineken
  63. DOCOMO
  64. Tata
  65. Nestlé
  66. BBVA
  67. Nissan
  68. T-Mobile
  69. Walgreens
  70. Avon
  71. PWC
  72. Deutsche Bank
  73. Lowe’s
  74. Dell
  75. ExxonMobil
  76. Movistar
  77. Bank of China
  78. Carrefour
  79. Sam’s Club
  80. ASDA
  81. Hitachi
  82. Toshiba
  83. Generali
  84. Telecom Italia
  85. Johnson & Johnson
  86. BT
  87. FedEx
  88. KPMG
  89. TimeWarner
  90. Credit Suisse
  91. UniCredit
  92. Philips
  93. H&M
  94. UBS
  95. Telefonica
  96. Porsche
  97. Kellogg’s
  99. Morgan Stanley
  100. CVS
  101. Volvo
  102. E.ON
  103. SAP
  104. Deloitte
  105. Standard Chartered
  106. DHL
  107. Reliance
  108. Total
  109. Ericsson
  110. ZURICH
  111. Boeing
  112. ING
  113. Renault
  114. China Telecom
  115. Banco Itaú
  116. Gillette
  117. Banco do Brasil
  118. TEPCO
  119. Nintendo
  120. Münchener Rück
  121. 3M
  122. Danone
  123. Ernst and Young
  124. China United Network
  125. Canon
  126. MUFG
  127. Enel
  128. Sainsbury’s
  129. FOX
  130. Costco
  131. Pfizer
  132. Motorola
  133. RWE
  134. Caterpillar
  135. T-Home
  136. O2
  137. Agricultural Bank of China
  138. Woolworths
  139. Best Buy
  140. AVIVA
  141. Xbox
  142. China Unicom
  143. adidas
  144. Gazprom
  145. Rabobank
  146. Roche
  147. Petrobras
  148. Marlboro
  149. Morrisons
  150. Merck
  151. AIG
  152. Intesa Sanpaolo
  153. Accenture
  154. Fujitsu
  155. VINCI SA
  156. Maggi
  157. Panasonic
  158. Safeway
  159. Unitedhealth
  160. CNP Assurances
  161. sanofi aventis
  162. Starbucks
  163. TD
  164. RBC
  165. eBay
  166. NEC
  167. Yahoo!
  168. ConocoPhillips
  169. Abbott Labs
  170. DIRECTV
  171. Kroger
  172. VISA
  173. DZ BANK
  174. PetroChina
  175. ArcelorMittal
  176. Sharp
  177. Metro Cash and Carry
  178. MTN
  179. Lambert & Butler
  180. Crédit Agricole
  181. CBS
  182. Iberdrola
  183. SYSCO
  184. Corona
  185. Publix
  186. State Bank of India
  187. SoftBank
  188. macy’s
  189. Medco
  190. Nordea
  191. Peugeot
  192. edp
  193. Fiat
  194. Honeywell
  195. O-I
  196. Telstra
  197. NESCAFÉ
  198. M&S
  199. Sears
  200. Aeon
  201. Sinopec
  202. LG Electronics
  203. BlackBerry
  204. Beeline
  205. Lafarge
  206. National Australia Bank
  207. Staples
  208. Kimberly-Clark
  209. BHP Billiton
  210. AEGON
  211. Zara
  212. HYUNDAI
  213. KDDI
  214. Kleenex
  215. Swisscom
  216. Johnson Controls
  217. telenor
  218. Medtronic
  219. U.S. Bank
  220. Asahi
  221. China Life Insurance
  222. Astrazeneca
  223. ABB
  224. Singapore Airlines
  225. SAIC
  226. Swiss Re
  228. MetLife
  229. Jardines
  230. Petronas
  231. Norton
  232. VEOLIA
  233. Lexus
  234. Manulife Financial
  235. Commerzbank
  236. Raytheon
  237. Mountain Dew
  238. TSMC
  239. BASF
  240. Holcim
  241. OptumHealth
  242. Lufthansa
  243. Commonwealth Bank of Australia
  244. ACS
  245. SMFG
  246. China State Construction
  247. EMC2
  248. International Paper
  249. eni
  250. Nivea
  251. Colgate
  252. LG Display
  253. Purina
  254. MOL
  255. Sanyo
  256. Audi
  257. Nestle Pure Life
  258. StatoilHydro
  259. PNC
  260. Universal Music Group
  261. Bell
  262. Claro
  263. QVC
  264. Lilly
  265. Media Markt & Saturn
  266. Bridgestone
  267. KitKat
  268. Tokio Marine
  269. Louis Vuitton
  270. JR-East
  271. Westpac
  272. Bank of Communications
  273. Cadbury
  274. Texas Instruments
  275. Ping An
  276. Sky
  277. ERSTE
  278. Michelin
  279. Gatorade
  280. MTV
  281. SUSUKI
  282. Sara Lee
  283. la Caixa
  284. Foster’s
  285. Randstad
  286. Lukoil
  287. KEPCO
  288. Airtel
  289. Wyeth
  290. Telcel
  291. Dow
  292. ESPRIT
  293. Fresenius Medical Care
  294. Travelers
  295. Hermès
  296. ADM
  297. Groupe Banque Populaire
  298. Groupe Caisse d’Epargne
  299. endesa
  300. Adecco
  301. Alcatel-Lucent
  302. Emerson
  303. Crédit mutuel
  304. Polo Ralph Lauren
  305. Bharat Petroleum
  306. CSC
  307. Citroën
  308. Harley-Davidson
  309. CIGNA
  310. Air France
  311. Deutsche Post
  312. zain
  313. Aetna
  314. Thomson Reuters
  315. ANZ
  316. Bouygues
  317. MTS
  318. Scottish and Southern Energy
  319. KBC
  320. T-Systems
  321. TNT
  322. Sprint
  323. Rio Tinto
  324. Royal Bank of Scotland
  325. Cablevision
  326. Danske Bank
  327. Virgin media
  328. OTE
  329. MAPFRE
  330. acer
  331. Qualcomm
  332. YAMAHA
  333. Bank of Montreal
  334. Kirin
  335. Capital One
  336. Amstel
  337. Thales
  338. J.C Penney
  339. Merrill Lynch
  340. Stella Artois
  341. Smirnoff
  342. POSCO
  343. Schering-Plough
  344. Mazda
  345. RICOH
  346. Rolls-Royce
  347. Bristol-Myers Squibb
  348. Kohl’s
  349. Natixis
  350. FCC
  351. Etisalat
  352. AIRBUS
  353. State Street
  354. SANDVIK
  355. Duke Energy
  356. Lloyds TSB
  357. Agip
  358. Tyson
  359. Scotiabank
  360. Thermo Fisher SCIENTIFIC
  362. gasNatural
  363. Camel
  364. RTL
  365. CANAL+
  367. Great-West Lifeco
  368. Covidien
  370. Pearson
  371. Estée Lauder
  372. Carlsberg
  373. Portugal Telecom
  374. Mizuho
  375. Scottish Power
  376. Applied Materials
  377. wilmar
  378. Edison International
  379. WIPRO
  380. ERGO
  381. The Bank of New York Mellon
  382. Qwest
  384. Allstate
  385. American Airlines
  386. HVB Group
  387. Royal Caribbean Cruises
  388. Falabella
  389. Whirlpool
  390. SEPHORA
  391. McGraw-Hill
  392. Dominion
  393. STC
  394. Ferrovial
  395. Bed Bath & Beyond
  397. CHS
  398. Winston
  399. Vodacom
  400. Qtel
  401. ROGERS
  402. Xerox
  403. ROSNEFT (????????)
  406. National Bank of Greece
  407. Schindler
  408. TDC
  409. 7-Eleven
  410. Mild Seven
  411. Lagardere
  412. Colruyt
  413. Ch?bu Electric Power
  414. KERRY
  415. SK telecom
  416. Nippon Steel
  417. KIA
  418. Kuehne + Nagel
  419. Marathon
  420. Telmex
  421. CIBC
  422. Japan Airlines
  423. Infosys
  424. Henkel
  425. VIVO
  426. Campbell’s
  428. Maersk
  429. Warner Bros.
  430. ACE
  431. China Merchants Bank
  432. JR West
  434. TELIA
  435. bhpbilliton
  436. Kraft
  437. Gerdau
  438. Areva
  439. ICICI Bank
  440. KYOCERA
  441. GAP
  442. Legal & General
  443. Vienna Insurance
  444. Casino
  446. Telesp
  447. Toray
  450. Yamato
  451. Hannover Re
  452. CSX
  453. Mobil
  454. Continental
  455. EIFFAGE
  457. Aisin
  458. Sodexo
  459. CN
  460. Marriott
  461. BYD
  462. Magnit
  463. Wendel
  464. BB&T
  465. Hochtief
  466. Cetelem
  467. SEB
  468. BAXTER
  469. Severstal
  470. C.H. ROBINSON
  471. Tokya
  472. Blackstone
  473. Midea
  474. PUMA
  475. G4S
  476. CSR
  477. Continental Airlines
  478. UNITED
  479. Oxy
  480. NTT DATA
  481. ADP
  482. DnB NOR
  483. Syngenta
  484. Shanghai Pudong Development…
  485. KEPCO
  486. FNCA
  487. Vale
  488. Telekom Austria
  489. T.J. Maxx
  490. Televisa
  491. TELUS
  492. UNIQLO
  493. Rexel
  494. next
  495. Sumitomo
  496. Xstrata
  497. Yamada
  498. Franklin Templeton Investments
  499. KOMATSU

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